Editorial: supporting Belsat is in the real interest of Warsaw and Minsk
In an interview published yesterday on Wpolityce.pl, Poland’s Minister of Foreign Affairs Witold Waszczykowski announced that his Ministry is considering closing down Belsat, the only Belarusian language satellite channel.
The possibility that Belsat may be taken off the air has shocked Belarusian civil society as it is probably the largest Western-sponsored project aimed at Belarus.
Without the active pro-democracy and pro-independence minority in Belarus, which creates and relies on Belsat, the prospect of Belarus being entirely swallowed up by the Russian world could become even more real. Neither the Polish nor the Belarusian authorities want it.
What is Belsat?
Belsat is a Warsaw-based satellite and web TV channel available online and via satellite across central Europe. The channel emerged in 2007 as the result of an agreement between the Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Polish Public Television. The agreement provided for long-term cooperation and financial support.
According to Belsat’s mission statement, its main goal is to provide ‘Belarusian society with access to uncensored information, a true account of the history of their country, a complete picture of the international situation that surrounds Belarus and to offer appealing cultural and entertainment in the Belarusian mother tongue.' In addition, the channel's goals include 'building bridges between Europe and Belarus and promoting democratisation in the country.'
On 18 December, nine years after Belsat was broadcast for the first time, Poland’s Foreign Minister explained why Belsat may need to be taken off the air: the non-attractiveness of the channel to the general Belarusian public; a promise by the Belarusian authorities to allow Polish official television onto their cable networks, and the need to redirect money to other causes in Asia and Africa.
Increasing the reach of Belsat
Although the majority of Belarusians probably know very little about Belsat, when it comes to the pro-democracy minority of the country there is certainly a significant viewership.
Belarus has not yet formed as a nation with a clear set of values and a common vision of history, and the nearly complete domination of the Russian media in Belarus is making this process increasingly difficult. Belsat features multiple talk shows, and programmes on Belarusian society, history and human rights issues. These broadcasts help strengthen Belarusian national and civic identity as the activities of the active minority become increasingly important.
Belsat has without a doubt become a platform for the active democratically-minded minority and it remains the only such television platform. Over the last two years the channel has also increased its presence on social networks, extending its reach to people not interested in politics.
Polish TV on Belarusian cable networks – no more than a promise?
The most appealing aspect of the Belsat brand is that its content is created by Belarusians for Belarusians. Read more
The Belarusian authorities outwardly promised that they would allow Polish public television to Belarusian cable networks, which would reach a much broader audience. Sacrificing Belsat in exchange for this would actually result in a dramatic reduction in opportunities for Poland to offer an alternative view.
The most appealing aspect of the Belsat brand is that its content is created by Belarusians for Belarusians. Broadcasting footage about Polish life to Belarusians is unlikely to have a greater effect on democracy and nation-buiding in Belarus than showing American movies. Studies of Germans in socialist Eastern Germany showed that exposure to Western German channels had no visible effect on values or attitudes to democracy. Exposing Belarusians to Polish television would be no different.
If the language of translation switches from Belarusian to English or Polish, only a tiny minority of people in Belarus would actually be able to understand it. If the broadcasts were in Russian, it would be viewed as entertainment. When it comes to entertainment, Russian channels are much better funded and Polish-produced content would have no chance of competing.
One call from the Kremlin could easily remove any Polish or Ukrainian channels from Belarusian cable networks Read more
Moreover, the promise to allow access to official Polish television may remain just a promise. In December 2014 Belarusian President Lukashenka and Ukraine's Poroshenko agreed to include the Ukrainian UATV channel on Belarusian cable networks. Until now this has remained at the level of discussions.
Moreover, one call from the Kremlin could easily remove any Polish or Ukrainian channels from Belarusian cable networks, almost completely dominated by Russian channels. Removing Belsat from the Internet or satellite would be a much more difficult task.
To have effective influence on Belarus, Poland should keep Belsat, one of its main assets when it comes to influencing public opinion in Belarus. To be effective, it must remain a channel produced by Belarusians for Belarusians.
Poland as the EU’s main expert on Belarus
In closing down Belsat Poland would send a clear signal that it is removing Belarus from its list of priorities. Poland remains the only large EU country which has an understanding of and deep cultural connections with Belarus. Re-focusing their efforts on the Arab world would mean the Polish government, think tanks and civil society would squander their long-accumulated expertise and have to learn how to work in culturally and geographically distant regions from scratch.
Poland is under no obligation to support democratic causes in Belarus Read more
Needless to say, although Poland has no obligation to support democratic causes in Belarus, Ukraine or elsewhere, for decades it has been doing so. Refugees and wars in the Middle East represent the symptoms rather than causes of social problems. A lack of fair elections, intolerance, corruption, inequality has caused anger which has resulted in bloody wars. Belsat with its focus on tolerance of different opinions, meaningful public debate and common history can help prevent greater problems for Poland and the European Union as a whole.
Belsat and the Russian World
Contrary to common perception, the Belarusian authorities tolerate Belsat to a certain degree. The Belarusian Foreign Ministry has never officially demanded that Poland close down Belsat. On issues such as Belarusian independence, history or the situation in Ukraine, Belsat can openly say things which no Belarusian official channel would dare to for fear of offending Russia.
Belsat does need reform. But rather than scrapping the nearly ten year old brand, its appeal and reach should be improved. Read more
The hands of the Belarusian authorities are tied by Moscow jealously observing any overtures with the West. Both Warsaw and Minsk should be interested in keeping Belarus as an independent state between the European Union and Russia, strengthening the national identity of Belarusians and slowly reforming the country.
In this context, Belsat remains one of the greatest achievements of Polish foreign policy and one of its most valuable instruments. Belsat does need reform. But rather than scrapping the nearly ten year old brand, its appeal and reach should be improved with target-oriented long-term funding, and greater participation of the Belarusian and Polish civil society in shaping it.
Massive financial help to Poland from the West in 1980s and 1990s helped it achieve its current success. Belsat should be not only Poland’s concern but also that of other European countries and organisations which care about preserving the fragile Belarusian statehood endangered by an increasingly assertive Russia.
Police brutality in Belarus
On 26 November 2016, a 36-year old woman was killed in a car accident as she was crossing the road in the village of Darava in the Brest region.
The drunk driver responsible for the accident turned out to be the head of the Baranavičy road police.
Alcohol is only one of many problems tarnishing the public perception of the police forces. Arbitrariness, a lack of integrity, and insufficient transparency all undermine the reputation of the police.
Police brutality still remains a serious problem in Belarus. In 2016, the number of cases involving abuse of power by the police in Belarus continued to rise.
Drunk and dangerous
Andrej Vaukavycki, the head of the Baranavičy road police who caused the accident, is currently undergoing investigation. The media have already confirmed that on the day of the accident he was driving his personal car with a blood alcohol concentration of nearly three promille.
According to eyewitness accounts, the victim, a mother of two, was killed instantaneously. Vaukavycki's career is certainly over, and he faces up to seven years of prison time. Alcoholism is widespread among police officers, and Vaukavycki was not the first officer caught driving drunk.
On 20 February 2016, a couple from Viciebsk stopped the car of the Head of the Regional Department of Internal Affairs, Siarhej Sarokin, suspecting that the driver was intoxicated. The road police later detected two promille of alcohol in Sarokin's blood. Eventually, he was fined approximately $1,200 and his driving licence was suspended for five years.
Is there a limit to arbitrariness?
The death of a pedestrian forced the Ministry of Internal Affairs to react with an official statement. But instead of apologising to the victim's family, minister Ihar Šunevič condemned Vaukavycki as a 'disgrace' to the police forces. The minister also reassured the public that delinquent officials would lose their jobs immediately.
In addition to having alcohol problems, police officers in Belarus often act with impunity. On 4 August 2016, a group of masked police officers broke into the apartment of Dzmitry Serada, a Minsk paediatrician. Without any warning, they started to break the front doors and balcony, beating the doctor and frightening his child and pregnant wife. Later, police admitted that they made a mistake, but so far no one has been punished.
In summer 2016, a SWAT team detained two underage youths, beating them up and urinating on one of them. Threats of sexual abuse followed. However, the youths themselves were later accused of attacking the police. On 1 November 2016, one of them, the 17-year old Aliaksandr Haruta, was sentenced to two years of house arrest for allegedly beating up the SWAT officer.
Statistical data from the Ministry of Internal Affairs reports 123 criminal cases involving accusations against police officers in 2016. However, Minister Šunevič has avoided detailing any specific long-term plan to address police arbitrariness. Earlier this year, the minister categorically denied any evidence of professional ineptitude in the police force and threatened to prosecute those who criticised it.
The police vs civil society
Other issues plaguing the Belarusian police include deficient personnel recruitment policies and training and lack of public access to police force oversight. Another point of criticism is the persecution of politically active citizens.
According to human rights defender and former investigator Aleh Volčak, Belarus is in need of a 'complete overhaul of the police force.' In his opinion, the police's only mission at the moment is to protect the current political regime.
Juras Hubarevič, head of the movement 'For Freedom', claims that political persecution now extends to ordinary citizens rather than just leading figures of the opposition. Even though the number of criminal cases has gone down, members of the opposition now commonly face administrative measures and fines, which can be a heavy burden for the population in conditions of economic crisis.
In response to such allegations, Šunevič has taken a defensive position, claiming that any attempts to criticise his ministry are evidence that certain forces intend to discredit the current political regime and destabilise the political situation in Belarus.
More skeletons in the closet
Authorities are reluctant to admit to the existence of problems. For instance, they repeatedly deny independent observers access to temporary detention facilities, infamous for their brutal conditions. Reportedly, the detained are often packed in tiny cells and do not have access to drinking water. But the real situation in these facilities remains obscure.
Officially appointed inspection commissions showcase the positive aspects of detention facilities, sometimes exaggerating them to the point of absurdity. For instance, media reports about the recent visit of Belarusian pop-singer Iryna Darafeeva to a prison in Mahiliou highlighted her amazement at the quality of prison food, which she compared to a 'restaurant.'
Another worrying trend is that police in the provinces are less accountable than in the capital. A few weeks ago, a youth in Polack remarked that a police car was parked in a disabled parking place. Policemen forced him to come to the local police precinct in order to 'ensure his identification.'
The numerous cases of police arbitrariness have prompted Belarusian civil society to launch an initiative against abuse of power by the police. Within two weeks in November, more than 4,000 people signed a petition demanding that Šunevič either take responsibility or resign.
Although some police officials are aware of the issues in the police force and are trying to resolve them, the majority are not yet ready to come forward and share their concerns with the public. However, in order to improve the situation and avoid further damage to the reputation of the police, a public discussion regarding the role and responsibilities of the police must take place.