Hunting Tourism and Corruption in Belarus
Since the end of the 2000s, Belarus has become a destination for many hunt lovers from abroad. 40% of Belarus is covered with woods, which remain a natural habitat for many species of animals. Today, booking a hunting expedition in Belarus can be made online with a couple of clicks.
Many Belarusians still prefer poaching, unwilling to stick to strict rules of legal hunting, even despite constantly growing penalties and fines. An extraordinary case of poaching occurred this past December, when the Belarusian KGB arrested a group of ten hunters in the Chernobyl zone of the Homel region. Strikingly, the officials of wildlife protection agency and police were among them. The group illegally killed four elk.
Corruption among low-level forestry employees remains widespread, as they try to supplement their low wages with additional cash. To protect its rich wildlife heritage, Belarus needs to improve its state system of nature management.
Hunting Tourism on the Rise in Belarus
Unlike most of Europe, Belarus has retained much of its ancient forests, which occupy almost 40% of Belarus' territory. Up to the present day they remain a natural habitat for many species of animals and birds, most of them free to hunt during specific seasons. However, in the 1990s and 2000s Belarus as a hunting destination was little known abroad.
Today, it seems, Belarus is becoming a favourite hunting spot for many individuals. As one online advertisement says, “the most luring feature is the complete authenticity of the wild animals, inhabiting the forests, swamps and fields of Belarus”.
One can book of a few days’ hunt in Belarus through numerous web sites. They provide information on prices, animal species and the various hunting seasons, as well as a list of necessary documents and procedures for foreigners. They also display photos of previous successful hunting trips to attract new customers.
Hunting companies typically offer 3 days of hunting for around €1,000. The price usually includes permission to bring one's own firearm, accommodation and meals, a hunting licence and transport from the airport to the hunting spot, an interpreter and accompanying hunters. Some firms include additional services like alcohol, sauna and trophy preparation.
As for animals, visiting hunters can choose between big game like European bison (prices starting from €10,000), wild boar (€100-600), elk (€700-4,500) or red deer (€700-3,500). The prices depend on the animal’s size, horns and other specific factors. Alternatively, one can go for small game ranging from €10 for partridge, waterfowl or woodcock, to capercaillie for €500.
But not all citizens are ready to pay these kinds of prices for a traditional male occupation. Poaching remains a widespread activity for many Belarusians, especially in rural areas. Corruption thrives, as both local people and local power holders often make deals with forestry workers.
Poaching Bisons in Belarus
In 2013 Lukashenka said he was surprised with the amount of hunting tackle seized from poachers – one thousand rifles, 300 kilometres of fishing net, dozens of tonnes of meat and fish. In 2014 the authorities raised fines for poaching, but so far it is unclear whether this move will lead to a decline in illegal hunting.
Hunting bison, one of the symbols of Belarus, usually receives the most attention in the media. According to Belarusian legislation, bison are divided into two categories – the main gene pool and the reserve gene pool. The animals from the latter pool – usually old or ill – are not considered as listed in the Red Book (list of endangered species), and can be hunted according to a certain procedure.
Environmentalists oppose such norms, saying rare species should be protected regardless of their health or age. But Belarus officials have another rationale – the population of bison is growing and it needs to be regulated.
Belarusians cannot afford bison hunting, as it costs several thousand euro, so the main clients usually come from abroad.
In recent years bison hunting involved many illegal cases. Usually, illegal schemes come from forestry officials, who make money by providing their hunting services for foreign tourists. In winter 2012, a Russian citizen killed a bison and wounded another one in the Valožyn district, while citizens of Lithuania killed three in the Chojniki district.
The guilty forester received only minor punishment for their transgressions. Earlier in 2009 an Italian killed a female bison at the Belaviežskaja Pušča national reserve, where hunting is forbidden. As it turned out, a local forester assisted him in getting to the protected area.
In 2011, the Presidential Property Management Department put a bison's life up for an Internet auction, which caused a public uproar and an online campaign to save his life and forbid this practise from continuining. Plenty of people made fake bids in an attempt to prolong the life of the animal while the owners of the lot checked the identity of the bidder. In the end ,the campaign wrecked the lot and these kinds of bids have not again appeared in public.
While poaching on the side of citizens is still widespread, some cases of government officials involved in this illegal activity have also become public. One of the most striking instances occurred recently, when a nature protection servicemen worked in contradiction of their official duties.
Wildlife Protectors Killing Wildlife
At the beginning of December the Belarusian authorities informed the public of a quite a paradoxical corruption case. Officials from the nation's wildlife protection agency were engaged in illegal hunting together with several police companions as additional cover. The group was poaching in the Vetka district of the Chernobyl area. Two of them were officials from the Homiel Regional Inspection for the Protection of Wildlife and the other five were officers from the Homiel Regional Police Department.
The group was supposed to eliminate wild boars as a part of programme to combat African swine flue. Instead, the group killed four elk. The poachers moved in a car with gangster-style registration plate with the word “Serega”, the name of the owner, instead of the officially required numbers.
The car owner’s son turned out to be the deputy head of Homel Regional Inspection for the Protection of Wildlife. During their detention of the poachers, KGB officers even had to resort to pulling out weapons to stop the car.
The locals say that the poachers organised a hunting business in the area together with a Russia citizen who lives in a bordering town. The men hunted animals illegally and then sold the meat to local people. Now they have been fired from service and face up to four years in prison.
By strange coincidence, the same month on 29 December a senor Belarusian official himself became a victim of hunting. The judge of the Supreme Court of Belarus Victar Rakicki received fatal wounds from some of his hunting colleagues, "residents of the Minsk region", as the Investigatory Committee reports.
Belarus retains its rich flora and fauna, and preserving it should be one of the government’s strategic goals. The authorities should control the local level of wildlife management more thoroughly, as most corruption cases occur there. Besides this, environmental groups from civil society should gain access to policymaking and oversight to help strengthen the public's engagement with this important issue.
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European Humanities University: To Be Belarusian or Not To Be
The European Humanities University (EHU), the only truly independent Belarusian university in existence, has struggled to live up to its great promise.
After being closed by the Belarusian authorities in 2004, the need for a vibrant and innovative university tailored primarily to Belarusians, resonated with many international donors and received their support to re-open in Vilnius in 2005.
Years of conflicts between the university management and academics, mismanagement and an administration adverse to reforming the institution has been widely covered in Belarusian media recently.
As EHU's Board moves to select a new rector in the coming days, they will either reaffirm its Belarusian identity – or bury it once and for all.
The Case for Change
It is easy for an outsider to get lost in all of the details surrounding the current dilemma facing EHU.
The university is located in Lithuania, an EU member state, but institutionally exhibits very little desire to become more "European".
Recently, EHU professor Maksym Zhbankov wrote an op-ed on the Nashe Mnenie web site about this paradox. He explained that the institution's exile nature isolates it simultaneously from both the EU and from Belarus, making it somewhat immune to internal and external criticism:
Internally, [EHU's exile status- ed.] means that it needs to maintain its [established] vertical of power (including suppressing any private attempts to get involved in what we consider to be external/repressive attempts to influence 'our' understanding [of EHU- ed.]).
Externally – the periodic attempt to garner compassion and empathy, the regular public articulation of our special sacrifice affirms the status of our institution.
Under these conditions remaining foreign is favourable in both senses: as a victim of totalitarianism, [we] have special privileges and are not obliged to live by your rules, but as refugees [we] are able to safely construct [our] own brand of democracy at a safe distance.
In a way, EHU became a miniature version of Belarus over the years. Its founder and former Rector Anatoli Mikhailov, 75, was criticised for being authoritarian and increasingly treating the university like his own personal institution.
Recognising the need for change, the EHU Board encouraged Mikhailov to retire from his post as Rector and consequently created the special honorary post of President just for him. Yet, judging by the recent actions of the Board and its current administration, their idea of change is at odds with the institution's original mission.
Members of the faculty, student body and alumni have been publicly complaining that EHU is losing its distinctive identity since the new administration took over. The university's latest version of its Charter, for example, (updated in September 2014) has removed the term "Belarus" from its mission statement (a document approved by EHU's Board) – just one of many signs that a gradual shift away from its Belarusian roots is well underway.
Candidates and Considerations
After granting Mikhailov his new honorary role, the Board launched its call for a new Rector in October 2014. While EHU has decided to not publicly announce the names of the 7 finalists for the Rectorship. Several undisclosed internal sources have reported to Belarusian media outlets that there are between 3-5 top contenders. They include:
David Pollick (Current Acting Rector at EHU)
Alaksandar Milinkievič (Former opposition presidential candidate, Sakharov Prize Winner)
Tatyana Schittsova (Professor of philosophy at EHU)
Ales Krautsevich (Former Vice Rector of Hrodna State University, Belarus)
Darius Udris (Vice Rector for development and communication at EHU)
Almost all of the candidates have some background in university administration, though their backgrounds vary. Krautsevich was the former Vice Rector of a Belarusian university but was subsequently forced out of his position by the authorities in the 1990s due to a difference of opinion. Milinkievič, a Sakharov Prize winner and a well-known opposition figure in Belarus and abroad, headed the Faculty of Physics at the University of Sétif in Algiers between 1980 and 1984.
Shchyttsova is also very familiar with EHU, having worked at the university since 1994. Darius Udris, who became Vice Rector for Development and Communications in 2011, has over a decade in program management experience and communications combined. He has been at the centre of the university's development the past several years.
David Pollick, however, is rumoured to be both the Board and Anatoli Mikhailov leading candidate.
Cause for Concern?
Originally, Pollick was brought in as a managing consultant by two members of the Board, Gregory S. Prince, Jr. and Dan E. Davidson, whom he is on friendly terms with. In December 2013, the university's Board hired him to serve as its provost and CEO (now Acting Rector). The position would appear to have been created just for him as no such position exists in EHU's Charter.
His track record raises questions whether this move was warranted. While serving as President of Birmingham-Southern College, the small school's deficit rose for several years in a row and he was personally embroiled in a scandal that led to a $5 million budget shortfall.
His current remuneration, which according to the New York Times is $150,000 and is rumoured to be twice as much, is an absolutely exorbitant sum by local standards. He does not speak Belarusian or Russian and his ability to understand the needs of a Belarusian university in exile have also been questioned in the past.
EHU is currently looking at roughly a €1 million gap in its 2014 budget – and according to Belarus Digest's sources familiar with the situation there is still no official budget ready for 2015. Pollick's official salary not been made public. For a donor-supported institution, this disturbing lack of transparency and poor planning is a real reason for concern.
A Nation's Elite Appeals
On 14 December 2014, 40 well-known individuals from Belarusian civil society, arts and culture – including independent Belarus's first Head of State Stanislau Shushkevich, prominent human rights activist Aliaksandr Bialiacki, leading writers and academics – published an open letter with a simple appeal:
The European Humanities University is the educational institution that Belarusian society has always pinned their hopes on for the preparation of a national elite. EHU today faces a very important choice – a new rector, on whom the university's development will depend. We call for the preservation of EHU's "Belarusian heart". We call for EHU's Rector to be a Belarusian citizen.
A number of publications in the Belarusian media all focus on the same message – the ideals and spirit with which EHU was created should not be abandoned at this crucial juncture in Belarus's history. As is their duty, the Board must step up to reaffirm its Belarusian identity and demand complete openness and transparency in all matters concerning the university, especially when it comes to financial matters.
Financially, a move away from its Belarusian identity would be disastrous. Several donors already indicated to Belarus Digest that they would support EHU only if it remains Belarusian and were ready to pull out funding otherwise.
As an institution almost entirely dependent on donor funding that is directly tied to its Belarusian identity, abandoning it will likely lead to a majority of donors withdrawing from the project altogether – something that EHU is unlikely to survive.